Schooling Progress, Learning Reversal: Indonesia’s Learning Profiles Between 2000 and 2014
The authors examine the relationship between schooling completed and mathematics learning from 2000 to 2014 by developing learning profiles for Indonesia. Using nearly-nationally representative survey data, we find a large gap between students’ ability and standards set by the national curriculum. Learning declined over 14 years, a loss of a fourth of a standard deviation. To put this loss in context, the average child in grade 7 in 2014 achieved the same numeracy mastery as the average child in grade 4 in 2000. The reduction in learning was widespread, affecting all subgroups. Junior and senior secondary enrollment increased over this timeframe, but this decline was not due to changes in student composition.