Improving Sanitation at Scale: Lessons from TSSM Implementation in East Java, Indonesia
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
Low-quality or nonexistent sanitation affects health and hinders economic development, especially in the world's poorest countries. To address this issue, the Water and Sanitation Program, a partnership administered by the World Bank and funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, launched a global initiative in 2006 at selected sites in India, Indonesia, and Tanzania. In Indonesia, the program was known as the Total Sanitation and Sanitation Marketing initiative, which moved beyond simply building sanitation "hardware" and relied, instead, on providing training and technical assistance to promote collective action to eliminate open defecation and to strengthen demand for and supply of sanitation products and services.